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In the 21st century, France has the largest Jewish population in Europe and the third-largest Jewish population in the world (after Israel and the United States). there were Jews at Vienne and Gallia Celtica; in the year 39 at Lugdunum (i.e. An early account praised Hilary of Poitiers (died 366) for having fled from the Jewish society.The Jewish community in France is estimated to be 480,000-500,000 but depends on the adopted definition. The emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed a decreee to Amatius, prefect of Gaul (9 July 425), that prohibited Jews and pagans from practising law or holding public offices (militandi), so that Christians should not be subject to them and possibly incited to change their faith.They were not allowed to require Christians to work on Sunday.Jews were not allowed to trade in currency, wine, or grain.From this epoch (689) dates the earliest known Jewish inscription relating to France, that of Narbonne.

There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages.Saint Agobard of Lyon (779-841) had many run-ins with the Jews of France.He wrote about how rich and powerful they were becoming.Charlemagne fixed a formula for the Jewish oath to the state.He allowed Jews to enter into lawsuits with Christians.

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